十二 月 23 日早 八 面，XELS 名目 Founder & CEO Takeshi Nojima 战 Project Manager Mitchell Hammer 做客 499DATA& 大月阁社群，由链1本钱 VP 月月掌管，停止了主题为“区块链没有只要金融 瞅 XELS 如何用区块链推进环保”的 AMA 分享。
AMA 进程外，Mitchell Hammer 示意：XELS 致力于应用区块链技能应答气候变化的雄伟义务，是一个基于区块链的碳信誉以及天然资本市场，为企业、当局战集体供应了一种通明的体例去获得、生意业务以及核算碳脚印战对消。它行使区块链将高品质的碳名誉转化为易于互换的资产，并经由过程加密资产市场完成流动性。
下列为 AMA 全文
月月：What are the advantages and innovations of XELS?
Takeshi Nojima：Globally, carbon offset markets suffer from fragmented implementation, lack of cross-market exchange of value and quite often incorrect parameterization of the carbon ratio of given projects such that carbon credits granted and/or retired often do not actually reflect their true environmental effect, creating demand-supply imbalances. This has resulted in hyperinflation in carbon credits and therefore not incentivizing the correct behavior in emitters or propagating trust in carbon credit markets generally.
正在全世界范围内，碳弥补市场的实行分离，缺少跨市场的代价互换，给定项目标碳比率参数化每每不正确，是以发放战 / 或者发出的碳名誉额常常不克不及现实反应其真正的情况影响，形成供需失衡。那致使了碳名誉的恶性收缩，是以不鼓励排放者的精确行动，也不正在总体上对于碳信誉市场的信赖。
Carbon credits, which put a price on carbon reductions and provide revenue for such forestry protection projects, therefore represent a clear way in which companies and inpiduals can be empowered to reduce or offset the negative or unavoidable impact of their business and choices on the environment. By placing a value on the ecosystems that support our planet, carbon credits internalize the invisible costs of everyday choices and allow a sustainable market place to emerge.
However, since its inception, carbon trading has suffered from some issues that have suppressed its potential. The market is beset by a lack of visibility, which prevents people from trusting the carbon credit as an asset. Differing standards and regulations in different jurisdictions and the potential for double counting (where the same credit is sold more than once) have resulted in a lack of confidence from potential market participants. And without a universal ledger it isn’t easy to track how much carbon you’ve used or – if you offset it – what the impact of your reduction has been on a tangible level. As an inpidual, it is hard to incorporate carbon credits into your daily life.
但是，从一开始，碳生意业务便遭到一些抑止其后劲的题目的搅扰。市场被短缺透明度所搅扰，那使得人们无奈置信碳名誉是一种资产。差别法律管辖区的分歧规范以及法例和反复较量争论的可能性 (异一笔信贷被出卖屡次) 致使潜伏市场参与者不足决定信念。要是不一个通用的分类账，很易跟踪你已经利用了几多碳，大概——若是您对消了——您的加排正在无形层面上孕育发生了甚么影响。作为小我，很难将碳名誉归入日常生活。
Yet even if every country satisfied their Paris commitments to reduce carbon emissions, this would still not be sufficient to create a safe climate. Inpiduals and businesses will need to do more to plug this gap, and we urgently need to find a way to help them do this, while working on longer-term shifts in parallel.
Xels is created in collaboration with strategic partners and industry leaders. Xels is a blockchain-based carbon credit and natural capital marketplace that provides a transparent way for corporations, governments and inpiduals to acquire, trade and account for carbon footprints and offsets. It utilizes the blockchain to turn high-quality carbon credits into easily exchanged assets, and enables liquidity through a crypto-asset marketplace.
XELS 是取计谋合作伙伴战行业领导者协作创立的。XELS 是一个基于区块链的碳名誉以及天然资本市场，为企业、当局战小我供给了一种通明的体式格局去获得、生意业务战核算碳萍踪战对消。它使用区块链将高品质的碳信誉转化为易于互换的资产，并经由过程加密资产市场完成流动性。
Our mission is to accelerate the transition from an unsustainable extractive economic model to a fully regenerative economy by embedded environmental impact costs (externalities) into the costs of all goods and services we consume. Our platform is unique in many ways. With it, we can transact small amounts of carbon credits, for the first time, allowing us to integrate the carbon market with the retail sector.
咱们的任务是经由过程将情况影响本钱 (内部性) 嵌入到咱们生产的全部商品战效劳的老本外，加速从不可持续的采掘型经济形式背齐全否再生的经济形式的变化。
Our platform is truly end-to-end, connecting polluters and consumers around the world. Using our blockchain-based platform, carbon credits will be managed throughout their entire lifecycle. It will offer transparency, traceability, and monitoring at every step. While it will of course sit alongside the structural improvements that businesses are making to lower their emissions, it offers the critical acceleration in activity and funding for emission reduction projects, driving the changes necessary for sustainable global development。
月月：The sustainable development of climate change is a topic of great concern around the world. Why did XELS choose it and devote to it? What are the expected positive effects on the global environment?
Mitchell Hammer：Climate change is indeed one of the critical issues of our time. Business managers should care because ultimately business cannot succeed in a world that’s failing.
The recent surge of superstorms that have been battering the Caribbean and the Southern US, the fires in Western Canada, and the extreme flooding experienced in many parts of the world have helped raised awareness of the impact of warming temperatures.
During the World Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland where Bill Clinton was talking about climate change. He argued that if we were able to decrease global carbon emissions by 80 per cent by the year 2050 it would still take 1000 years for the planet to cool down. In the meantime, he said, you can expect a lot of bad things to happen – like a billion people losing most of their water supply in the next decade.
正在瑞士达沃斯进行的世界经济论坛上，比尔·克林顿谈到了气候变化。他觉得，假如咱们可以或许正在 2050 年前将环球碳排放量缩小 80%，地球仍必要 1000 年才干降温。与此同时，他道，您能够估计会发作得多欠好的工作——比方 十 亿人正在未来十年落空大部分供水。
We can all imagine the human tragedy that would result – death, migration, wars, and increased terrorism just for starters.
Clearly (to anyone who believes in science) climate change is arguably the world’s most daunting challenge. Virtually every scientist now agrees that the debate is over. Rising average surface temperatures combined with rapidly expanding deserts, melting Arctic sea ice caps and ocean acidification now provide unequivocal evidence that human activities are fundamentally altering the Earth’s climate. In fact the planet appears to be changing faster than even the pessimists expected—way faster.
For many people, those consequences seem distant, and it’s certainly true that the worst of it will be inherited by future generations. Given the short-term thinking that dominates our political systems, our economy, our capital markets, and our day-to-day decision-making as inpiduals, it is easy to be dismissive of the notion that humankind will suddenly become motivated by a sense of inter-generational justice to make the deep and difficult adjustments that are required to avert global ecological disruption.
It’s one thing for governments or corporations to take action, but more is needed – a global change in human behavior. But what will it take to cause all of us radically reduce our own carbon footprint?
So we are working on the ambitious mission to combat climate change by using blockchain technology.
XELS will engage millions of people to help fight climate change by encouraging them to making smart choices about their carbon consumption. The company plans to purchase carbon credits, or invest in carbon reduction programs, then distribute the offsets via major retailers and brands as loyalty tokens that will help incent people to make carbon-friendly decisions in their day-to-day purchases of goods and services. The tokens earned will be tradable on the our platform, or can be exchanged for goods and services, other reward program points, or other digital currencies.
月月：How can ordinary people participate in the XELS ecosystem?
一般人民怎样参预到 XELS 生态外去 ?
Takeshi Nojima：Blockchain has the potential to accelerate the deployment of emissions trading systems (ETS) worldwide and improve upon the efficiency of existing systems. XELS is developing a a model for a permissioned blockchain implementation based on the successful European Union (EU) ETS as it has many potential advantages over existing technology. We are creating an ETS model that is both backwards compatible and future-proof, characterised by interconnectedness, transparency, tamper-resistance and high liquidity.
This is where blockchain technology comes in. Put simply, blockchain is the name for a digital ledger in which transactions (often made with “tokens” or a cryptocurrency such as bitcoin) are recorded chronologically and publicly. Applying this to carbon credits to create a “carbon currency” is the key to demystifying and consolidating the carbon market so it can scale up. Carbon credits are the perfect candidate for a digital currency as they are data-driven, rely on multiple approval steps and exist separately to the physical impacts to which they correlate.
那便是区块链手艺的泉源。简而言之，区块链是一个数字分类账的名字，个中生意业务 (平日用“代币”或者比特币等加密泉币) 定时间次第公然纪录。将此应用于碳疑用来发明一种“碳泉币”是揭开碳市场神奇面纱战稳固碳市场的要害，如许它便能够扩充范围。碳名誉是数字钱币的完满候选，由于它们是数据驱动的，依赖于多个答应步调，并取它们相干的物理影响分隔存在。
Imagine a world in which carbon emissions and credits can be tracked transparently and reliably. Retailers will be able to sell a product and take into account the carbon impact it creates at the same time. Governments will be able to measure, track and trade emissions transparently. And crucially, for the first time consumers will be able to understand the environmental impact of the products they are buying – both positive and negative – at the point of sale, and will be able to mitigate this in an instant, with millions of micro-transactions scaling up to make a huge collective impact.
Momentum is building towards natural solutions to climate change, and not a moment too soon. Pressure on businesses from consumers to improve the sustainability of their supply chains and their products will soon be matched by regulatory pressures and quotas if we are to stand any chance of reversing the climate damage that is a reality today.
It is not an overstatement to say that we all need to take responsibility for the carbon consequences of every choice we make. What is exciting is that by creating a global, trusted and accessible carbon currency, with the help of new digital technologies available to us, we are on the cusp of being able to do so.
月月：What can XELS tokens used for (application)?
Mitchell Hammer：Building a Better Market. One of the promises of blockchain technology is that it can bring efficiencies and access to virtually every market. XELS will promise to try to build a better carbon trading market.
Our objective: To bring efficiencies to developing, managing, and trading carbon credits, with the ultimate goal of reducing carbon emissions. By doing so on a public blockchain, they combat the issues of corruption and lack of transparency.
咱们的目的 : 普及碳名誉的开辟、治理战买卖效力，最终目标是削减碳排放。经由过程正在大众区块链上如许作，处理了腐朽战短缺透明度的成绩。
The ability to create immutable transactions on blockchain helps ensure that the data is traceable, transparent and visible in real time to all stakeholders. The entire carbon trading process becomes more shareable as well, which naturally streamlines it.
The results: Reduced time-to-market for carbon assets (projects with a more significant reduction in emissions), reduced cost, greater transparency, and better security. Participants can easily track their carbon footprint and better understand when to buy or sell in the carbon asset market. And regulators can more easily monitor progress against quotas to ensure that participants meet carbon reduction goals.
结果是 : 碳资产的上市时候收缩 (减排更明显的名目)，老本低落，透明度更高，安全性更好。参与者能够轻松跟踪他们的碳萍踪，并更好天理解什么时候正在碳资产市场采办或者发售。羁系机构能够更轻易天凭据配额监控希望，以确保参与者到达碳减排目的。
Now, I don’t want you to get the impression that the blockchain is the solution to everything, even though the media has said that it’s going to end world poverty, it’s also going to solve the counterfeit drug problem and potentially save the rainforest. The truth is, this technology is in its infancy, and we’re going to need to see a lot of experiments take place and probably fail before we truly understand all of the use cases for our economy. But there are tons of people working on this, from financial institutions to technology companies, start-ups and universities. And one of the reasons is that it’s not just an economic evolution. It’s also an innovation in computer science.
而今，尔不想让您有如许的印象 : 区块链是办理一切问题的办法，只管媒体道它将竣事天下穷困，它也将处理假药题目，并有可能救济雨林。究竟是，这项手艺借处于起步阶段，正在咱们真正懂得咱们经济的所有效例以前，咱们须要看到很多试验发作，而且大概失利。但有不计其数的人正在处置这项事情，从金融机构到科技公司、始创企业以及大学。此中一个起因是，这不仅仅是一种经济退化。那也是计算机科学的一项立异。
Blockchains give us the technological capability of creating a record of human exchange, of exchange of currency, of all kinds of digital and physical assets, even of our own personal attributes, in a totally new way. So in some ways, they become a technological institution that has a lot of the benefits of the traditional institutions we’re used to using in society, but it does this in a decentralized way. It does this by converting a lot of our uncertainties into certainties.
So I think we need to start preparing ourselves, because we are about to face a world where distributed, autonomous institutions have quite a significant role.
XELS applies traditional commodity exchange architecture to carbon credits. Traditional commodities trade digital receipts representing commodities held in a warehouse. These warehouses are organized around predefined specs.
Similarly, we currently securitize carbon credits into tradable carbon asset classes. We organize credits around the markets they serve. Carbon credits held by the exchange are held in a Trust. For every credit deposited into the Trust, a corresponding amount of Tokens resides on the Exchange.
Our platform is unique in many ways. With it, we can transact small amounts of carbon credits, for the first time, allowing us to integrate the carbon market with the retail sector. Our platform is truly end-to-end, connecting polluters and consumers around the world.
Using our blockchain-based platform, carbon credits will be managed throughout their entire lifecycle. It will offer transparency, traceability, and monitoring at every step. While it will of course sit alongside the structural improvements that businesses are making to lower their emissions, it offers the critical acceleration in activity and funding for emission reduction projects, driving the changes necessary for sustainable global development.
B2C – Retail integration
Our immediate focus is the integration of the Xels platform with retailers around the world,
as this is the fastest moving and most scalable market. When a consumer buys a product like a shoe at a retailer, our platform can calculate its carbon footprint. When the payment is made, an offset with 22kg of carbon credits, representing 110% of the emissions, is used to make the purchase climate positive. The user experience is seamless and shortly after the purchase a notification is sent to the optional mobile app, if the user chooses to register for this service
咱们今朝的重点是 Xels 平台取世界各地零售商的整合，由于那是生长最快、范围最大的市场。
当消费者正在零售商采办鞋子等产物时，咱们的平台能够盘算其碳脚印。当付款时，22 千克的碳信誉额度 (相当于排放量的 110%) 将被用来对消，以使购置情况变得踊跃。用户体验是无缝的，若是用户挑选注册这项效劳，采办后不久便会背可选的挪移应用程序发送告诉
B2B / B2G – Corporations / Governments – offsetting their emissions
B2B/B2G-公司 / 当局-对消他们的排放
A logical second target market is made up of corporate and government entities who want to offset their own carbon emissions, as for example to satisfy the legal obligations under Article 六 of the UNFCCC Paris Agreement. When a corporation or government decides to offset its carbon emissions using the Xels platform, our Footprint engine calculates the carbon footprint and selects the best carbon credits using an array of criteria. Once a transaction is made, a certificate is issued as verification for the offset.
合乎逻辑的第二个宗旨市场由希翼对消本身碳排放的企业以及当局实体构成，比方，为了推行《天气条约巴黎协议》第六条规则的法令任务。当一家公司或者当局决议利用 Xels 平台对消其碳排放时，咱们的萍踪引擎会计较碳脚印，并利用一系列尺度挑选最好碳名誉。生意业务实现后，会签发一份证书作为抵销的考证。
B2C / B2B – Traders
The fourth target market is crucial for the token economics, as the arbitrage opportunity provided by the trading of carbon credits on the xels platform by large corporations will ensure that the value on secondary markets will stay above the carbon rate, the exchange rate we fix internally at Xels against the global carbon market value.
第四个指标市场对于代币经济至关重要，由于大型企业正在 xels 平台上买卖碳名誉供给的套利机遇将确保二级市场的代价坚持正在碳汇率之上，即咱们外部肯定的 Xels 对于寰球碳市场代价的汇率。
A trader can quickly and conveniently trade carbon credits on the platform by converting
Tokens. Each token represents part of a carbon credit. It is possible to select the emission reductions project the carbon credit originated from and using the blockchain integration, a trader can view all of its lifecycle details. tokens can either be allocated to a trader’s account on the platform or the underlying carbon credit delivered to a trader’s registry account outside Xels. The trader has full ownership of tokens and which he can trade with other participants on secondary markets. In most cases, a trader is ultimately selling the purchased carbon credits to a corporate or government entity that wants to use them to offset their carbon emissions, as for example to satisfy requirements under Article 六 of the UNFCCC Paris Agreement.
生意业务者能够经由过程转换正在平台上疾速利便天生意业务碳名誉代币。每一个代币代表碳名誉的一部分。能够挑选碳名誉起原的加排名目，并利用区块链集成，买卖者能够检察其生命周期的一切细节。代币能够分配给平台上的生意业务者账户，也能够将根底碳信誉额交付给 Xels 之外的生意业务者注册账户。生意业务者具有代币的局部所有权，他能够正在二级市场上取其余参与者停止生意业务。在大多数情况下，贸易商最终将购置的碳名誉额出卖给公司或者当局实体，公司或者当局实体但愿利用这些名誉额去对消其碳排放，比方餍足《气象条约巴黎协议》第六条的请求。
月月：Specific plans of XELS project in 2021.
XELS 2021 年有甚么计划？
Takeshi Nojima：Further, we identify key challenges to implementation of a blockchain ETS, as well as areas of future work required to enable a fully-decentralised blockchain ETS. On top of launching this Carbon trade platform we are looking to extend this to developing a platform for personal carbon rationing.
Carbon rationing, as a means of reducing CO2 emissions to contain climate change, could take any of several forms. One of them, personal carbon trading, is the generic term for a number of proposed emissions trading schemes under which emissions credits would be allocated to adult inpiduals on a (broadly) equal per capita basis, within national carbon budgets. Inpiduals then surrender these credits when buying fuel or electricity. Inpiduals wanting or needing to emit at a level above that permitted by their initial allocation would be able to purchase additional credits from those using less, creating a profit for those inpiduals who emit at a level below that permitted by their initial allocation.
碳配给，作为淘汰二氧化碳排放以停止气候变化的一种伎俩，能够采纳多少种模式中的任何一种。其中之一，集体碳生意业务，是很多拟议的排放生意业务方案的通称，按照这些方案，正在国度碳预算内，排放名誉将正在 (大抵) 人均基础上分配给成年人。小我私家而后正在购置燃料或者电力时交出这些名誉。想要或者需求排放程度高于其初始调配所答应的程度的集体将可以从应用较少的人那边采办分外的名誉，为那些排放程度低于其初始调配所容许的程度的小我私家制造利润。
XELS Ltd 建立于 2018 年，方针是经由过程致力于减缓气候变化，同时供应鼓动勉励社会朝着更可持续的将来倒退的解决方案，对于寰球情况孕育发生主动影响。
XELS 的愿景是打造一个以用户为核心的区块链生态系统，正在此生态系统外，数据，资金以及信息能够无缝，安全地同享。XELS 在建树一个由区块链基础设施以及通用数字资产支撑的环保公司生态系统，那将加强所有人正在应答环球变暖方面的才能。
XELS 名目的第一阶段能够说是那三个阶段外最关头的阶段，它将引入外围代价主意，该代价主意答应经由过程咱们的 XELS 交易所战合作伙伴交易所采办以及散发 XELS 代币。
第一阶段的宗旨是供应最大批的流动资金，以提供给咱们的初始投资者。经过具备以扣头价交易 Elesol 产物战办事的代币，或者将其交流为其余数字钱银或者法定泉币的本领，投资者能够正在须要时马上号令流动性，那是 XELS 团队想要供给的环节代价主意。